I. ABOUT THE WEBSITE
Parties and Elections in Europe provides a comprehensive database
about political parties, elections and governments in all
European countries. The website contains the results of
parliamentary elections from more than 100 countries and
autonomous regions in Europe. The parties are classified
according to their political orientation. Historical data
can be found in the archive.
The private website was established by Wolfram
Nordsieck in 1997. The editor began his comparative
study of party systems, parliamentary elections and constitutional laws in the late 1980s.
Thereafter he studied law and history at the Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf. Today he practices
AMS: Additional member system;
FPTP: First-past-the-post; MMP: Mixed-member proportional
representation; PR: Party-list proportional representation; STV: Single transferable
vote; TRS: Two-round system; MEP: Member of the European Parliament; S.: Seats; ... : Not
Centrism: Centrist parties are usually
moderate traditionalist parties which take a centrist position on the socio-economic left-right
© 2024 Wolfram Nordsieck. News, suggestions and
corrections are always welcome.
Christian democracy: The Christian social doctrine is the main inspiration of Christian democratic
parties. This cross-class parties advocate
Christian ethical and moderate social conservative stances. They are very supportive of family values and adhere to principles as
freedom, solidarity and subsidiarity. Usually they advocate a social market
Communism: Communist parties
primarily adhere to Marxism developed by Karl Marx and
Friedrich Engels in the 19th century. Their aim is the free and classless society based on common ownership of the means of
production. This parties intend to
overthrow the present capitalist system. They often originated after the Russian Revolution
of 1917 from leftist factions of socialist or social democratic
– Marxism-Leninism: Marxist-Leninist (Leninist)
parties prefer a non-pluralist orthodox form of communism developed by
Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (leadership of a vanguard party,
dictatorship of the proletariat, centralism).
– Trotskyism: Trotskyist parties favour a
non-pluralist form of communism established by Leon Trotsky (leadership of
a vanguard party, dictatorship of the proletariat, proletarian
internationalism, permanent revolution).
Conservatism: Originally inspired by natural law and formed by the
upper-class, conservative parties today are middle-class organisations that seek to preserve established
traditions and the current status quo of a society. They normally advocate traditional values as
authority, nation, religion, family, stability and
continuity. Over the time they
incorporated some liberal values, especially on economic issues (free market
– Liberal conservatism: Liberal conservative parties combine conservative policies with more
liberal stances on social and ethical issues.
– Social conservatism: Social conservative parties focus on the preservation of traditional
social, ethical and religious values. They usually advocate a social market
– National conservatism: National conservative parties combine conservative policies with national
They oppose a further European integration and prefer the preservation of the
nation-state with its cultural identity. This parties usually favour social
stability and traditional social, ethical and religious values.
Green politics: Most green parties were founded in the late
1970s as part of the new social movements that came up in the mid-1960s (in particular the
ecology, peace and anti-nuclear movements). This parties
aim to create a sustainable society rooted in environmentalism,
feminism, social justice and human rights.
populism: Left-wing populist parties are
protest parties that
appeal to the common people.
This parties combine left-wing policies with an anti-elitist rhetoric and a radical critique of
the political institutions. They usually oppose the globalisation
and prefer direct democracy, economic democracy and social
Liberalism: Liberal parties are
middle-class parties based on the tradition of political liberalism,
a movement of the 18th century. The doctrine of liberalism considers personal freedom
to be the most important goal. In particular it favours free markets, free
trade, limited governments, low taxes and private property (economic
liberalism) as well as equality for all citizens under the
law, civil rights, secularism and freedom of speech and
– Conservative liberalism: Conservative liberal parties
usually combine liberal policies with more traditional stances
on social and ethical issues (in some
countries this form of
right-wing liberalism is traditionally known as national
– Social liberalism: Social liberal parties stress civil
and human rights
and favour a social market economy.
Minority interests: Parties of national minorities intend to secure or to increase the rights of an ethnical or linguistical
Nationalism: Nationalist parties believe that
the nation with its collective ethnic, linguistic and cultural
its natural order and its sovereignty is of primary importance. This involves a strong identification with the
nation state and its symbols. It usually also includes negative views of other nations
or ethnic groups.
– Far-right politics: Far-right parties are ultra-nationalist parties that adhere to a pure form of the nation
defined by ethnicity. They challenge the equality of all
humans and believe that a nation state requires a collective
identity and a strong leadership. This parties tend to
authoritarianism, xenophobia and corporatism. They usually oppose the present
democratic systems and their values.
Regionalism: Regionalist (autonomist) parties focus on the interests of a particular region
within a state. They generally intend to secure or to increase the region's
influence. Their aim is a decentralisation of governance,
self-determination and regional autonomy.
– Separatism: Separatist parties advocate a
full political secession of a particular region with its ethnical,
linguistical or cultural identity and the formation
of a new state.
populism: Right-wing populist parties are protest parties that
appeal to the common people. They appeared first in the early 1970s.
This parties combine national stances with an anti-elitist rhetoric and a radical critique of
the political institutions. They usually prefer law-and-order and anti-immigration
Social democracy: Social democratic parties are rooted in the
socialist labour movement of the 19th
century. They advocate a democratic welfare state and a mixed economy that contains
privately-owned and state-owned enterprises. This parties adhere to values as
freedom, equality, solidarity and social justice. Since the 1990s,
they incorporated economically liberal topics as limited social
welfare, privatisations, deregulations and lower company taxes.
Socialism: Socialist parties oppose the present capitalist system and intend to establish a social and economic system
characterised by social ownership of the means of production (state-owned
enterprises, employee-owned cooperatives, common ownership). They advocate a society characterised by equal access to resources for all
individuals. In general, they emphasise values as equality, solidarity
and social justice.
– Democratic socialism: Democratic socialist parties advocate a strong welfare state with a large public
sector. They resist the capitalist globalisation and propose a reorganisation of the
present socio-economic order through more public ownership,
workers' control of the labour process and redistributive tax
– Ecosocialism: Ecosocialist parties combine (democratic) socialist and green
Agrarianism, Animal welfare, Anti-clericalism, Anti-corruption
politics, Anti-globalisation politics, Christian left, Christian
right, Copyright reform, Direct democracy, Environmentalism,
Euroscepticism, Evangelicalism, Feminism, Gaullism, Islamism, Kemalism,
Loyalism, Libertarianism, Monarchism, Multiculturalism, Pensioners'
interests, Single-issue politics, Statism, Transparency, Unionism.